Sunday September 10th, 2017 22:22 The Typical Queenslander

When you think of a typical Queenslander, apart from the massive stilts and open-plan design, one of the most recognisable qualities is the corrugated iron roof.

Since the 1840s when Australia was first developing, corrugated iron has been considered one of the best materials to use for roofing. Because of it’s lightweight, sturdy properties, it is the ideal material to use in terms of easy transportation and construction as well as protection.

Although it is a relatively strong, fire proof and weather-resistant material, if exposed to water (particularly salt) rusting is inevitable. This is why it is extremely important to coat the steel in a layer of paint in order for it to remain protected.

Even today this roofing remains to be one of the most popular choices in materials for a range of reasons. Its flexibility, strength and thin sizing allows for quick repairs, relatively cheap installation and durability with little maintenance.

Since iron is quite a durable material itself, compared to wood it is very easy to prepare for installation. Instead of needing to purchase an expensive sealant, a few layers of paint will generally be enough to prevent any damage.

Apart from the practical side of things, there is also the aesthetics. The typically 3 inch curves rolling into one another create a very symmetrical feel, breaking up the angles of the rest of the house and creating a harmonious contrast.

One aspect of corrugated iron that can pose a genuine issue is the fact that the wavelengths of most sounds are echoed loudly into the tube of the corrugated iron. This means that any noise close to or coming into contact with the roof is going to release a high pitched “ping”. This can be a genuine issue for Queenslanders as falling tree branches and wildlife are a part of our every day lives.

On the other hand, the echo can be the perfect culprit to amplify raindrops into a soothing lullaby and because of the shape of the typically 3 inch tubing and smoothness of the iron, the water runs straight down and off the roof, making cleaning very manageable. Also because it is a very thin material it allows the house to stay cool in the warm summers, making it the ideal choice for a house in Queensland. For roof painting Brisbane, visit Retro Roof Restoration.

The iron sheets themselves are relatively cheap and can be purchased with a coat of Colorbond or made galvanised to order. They range from around 5 to 45 dollars per sheet depending on the size of the sheet and what coating you have selected.

Compared with other common roofing materials such as clay, slate, concrete, wood, Spanish and asphalt, corrugated iron is often said to be one of the most durable and certainly one of the most cost-effective.

So whether it’s the classic sound of rain on the tin roof, or the practical desires of someone looking for a sturdy home, or anyone who doesn’t want to waste their precious pennies, it is no surprise that corrugated iron is one of the most popular choices in Queensland.

In: 1(1,670) Comments

Friday September 1st, 2017 21:29 Data Center Cleaning – Protect Your Data Center Assets

The Data center rooms which include network control areas, server rooms, UPS rooms, telecom rooms and raised floor areas have expensive and important devices and hardware. The computer devices are prone to damage due to excessive accumulation of unwanted residues and contamination. To enhance proper functioning of these devices, it is essential to clean the rooms using advanced techniques and equipment. So, why it is important to have a clean data center?

Control Electrostatic Charges: Pliable particles can contact the component parts, leading to large deposits and scrap the necessary componnents of system. Over the time, this can enhance electrostatic charging. This can harm the micro-electronic equipment in the data center.

Prevent accumulation of residue and dust: Dirt and dust can lead to residue deposits on the circuit boards and other major system parts. This residue build-up raises the water vapor concentration and emergence of gaseous elements leading to damage to the devices and their performance. This is risky as it increases the chances of shot circuits and system failure.

Safeguard the sensitive components: There are innumerable minute computer components parts. Each of them play significant role in the functioning and processing to enhance timely performance. Keeping the data center unclean can lead to deposit of fine dust particles on these components. Once they contact such impurities, it is tough to eliminate them using the air filters. A clean room ensures proper functioning of the system and greater longevity of the computer equipment.

To avoid clogging in the air filter: Accumulation of dirt in the air filter can cause major blockage in the smooth air passage. This also increases chances of large impurity deposits on hardware equipment trapping the heat inside the computers, servers and . Continuous overheating can lead to major damages and system failure making the entire work process to a halt.

What to look for in a data center cleaning company?

There are certain key issues that need consideration before appointing a data center cleaning company to handle the entire cleaning program. Some of the factors that are worth consideration are:

Reputation and Testimonials: It is essential to check the performance record and services of the company. It is not wise to bestow the responsibility to any newly established organization with inexperienced staff members. The company with at least 5 years of experience in relevant field and efficient in delivering high quality services within the stipulated period is the ideal one to handle such contracts.

Insurance Policy details: Always assign the data center cleaning project to a data center cleaning company with proper insurance formalities. To ensure they have adequate insurance documents, avail the information and certificate copy from the insurance agency where the company has acquired the policy.

Emergency Call out Services: While appointing a data center cleaning company to clean the data center room and equipment, enquire if they are available during sudden critical situation. It is beneficial to hire the services of the company with round the clock technical assistance, which can cater to the needs even during the urgent requirements.

Cleaning Process and Equipment: Ensure the data center cleaning company has advanced technology to carry out the task properly. It is also important to assure if the company has expert professionals to accomplish the work within the deadline as any delay in their work can result in loss of work of your organization.

Data Center Maintenance Cleaning
The smooth running of the activities requires proper functioning of the equipment and devices inside the data center. A clean atmosphere is an integral part of the adequate work atmosphere and ensures greater life of the computers and their accessories. Accumulation of the residues and impurities can lead to major downtime of causing losses to the company’s business. Therefore, maintenance and cleaning sessions at regular intervals are essential to avoid such inconveniences. The data center cleaning companies have team of expert professionals and advanced equipment to execute the cleaning programs efficiently. The cleaning programs include floor surface and under floor cleaning, hardware cleaning, ceiling plenum cleaning, support equipment cleaning etc.

The data center cleaning is very essential for proper functioning of the entire work system and regular servicing can keep the entire dtat center system in right order to prevent accidents and major damages. An experienced team with proper cleaning techniques can perform the task within a short duration to ensure peace of mind.

Looking for a data centre cleaning company you can trust? We also supply data centre LED lighting and server rack LED lighting. Contact Data Centre Services Today.

In: 1(2,719) Comments

Thursday August 31st, 2017 09:16 Sugar Daddies

Sugar, has been known to raise blood glucose causing a significant rise. Many experts believe that too much sugar does not cause a man to go blind.

Babe, is a really attractive person, especially a woman, termed with endearment. Again not a real cause for men to go blind, unless they avoid the Babe, and take up the handshake. Daddy, From Middle English dadd, perhaps of Celtic origin, compare Welsh and Gaelic dadf. Some of these Daddies may already be blind, or induce blindness with substances. Others avoid blindness with Sugar and Babes.

We are a unique Sugar Daddy AGENCY with a selective portfolio of companions available NATIONALLY. We Specialise in providing Companions for Sugar Daddies. If you are seeking a Sugar Baby and you are an eligible Sugar Daddy then be your own Matchmaker and start Matching with the Sugar Babes now.

We offer a first class booking service. If you are looking for a Sugar Babe for that special social event or regular date, then you have come to the right place. Our Sugar Babes’ are intelligent, warm, friendly people who also know how to dress to impress for that touch of glamour. Please feel free to browse through our site and Sugar Babes, if you have any questions about our service or companions do not hesitate to contact us.
Sugar-Daddy offers a professional service in both behaviour and talents.

Each profile of our Sugar Babes contains the Sugar Babes recent and genuine photographs, along with the fees, statistics and other information. So take your time to browse our fascinating selection of stunning young Sugar Babes and travel companions displayed in our gallery. Contact us with your enquiries or selections and we will gladly assist you. We can assure you that the Sugar Babes which are to be introduced to you are beautiful, stylish, friendly sexy companions that will suit your requirements. When you call you will always be greeted by a friendly and helpful young lady. Please feel free to discuss with her your requirements for one or more of our companions. We aim to provide an honest and efficient service with a personal touch.

At Sugar-Daddy we offer a social experience for the genuine gentlemen. We have Sugar Babes for your forthcoming Corporate Functions, Cinema, Theatre, Sporting Events, Dinner, Shopping Trips, Weekend Travel, Holidays, or if you are here from Interstate and simply missing a date for an event. Dinner Dates are also most welcome, as our upmarket ladies will wine and dine in the classy environment that you will provide. We offer Sugar Babes from 3 hours up to 24 hour periods. Why be alone when you can have conversation, laughter, and fresh perspective to add to your day or evening.

All of our Sugar Babes will require the relevant details necessary for a date, such as venue, name, times, travel arrangements, and payment method. This is so as to avoid confusion and to offer complete safety for both parties. To assist in meeting your requirements we suggest advanced bookings to ensure availabilty.

Looking for a Sugar Daddy and fed up with low quality Dating Sites? Try our Speed Dating service today. GCXCV2011BS1108


Related Blogs

    In: 1(1,136) Comments

    Wednesday August 30th, 2017 21:13 Laser Hair Removal Brisbane

    Laser Hair Removal is a becoming a popular treatment, as the current fashion for both men and women is to have the clean look consisting of little or no body hair. Excess or unwanted hair growth is usually a result of genetics, hormones or certain medications. Recent advances in the technology have meant that the hair removal treatments are now a lot more effective and there is less risk of side effects from occurring, making it safer for consumers.

    When discussing Laser Hair Removal, it is important to note that the body has 3 cycles of hair growth – Anagen (active), Catogen (transitional) and Telogen (resting). The laser energy destroys hairs in the Anagen or active phase, targeting the cells at the base of the hair follicle which are responsible for hair growth. As Laser Hair Removal targets only the hairs in the active phase, only a percentage of hairs are treated with each session. A series of treatments is required to clear an area, though less hair will return with each treatment and the regrowth will become fine, soft and sparse.

    Laser hair removal treatments target melanin which is the dark pigment contained within the hair. Red hair contains a different type of melanin and consequently the treatments can be less effective for redheads.
    The area must be shaved prior to treatment to allow the laser energy to be directed under the skin, and not to heat up the surface by having dark hair above the skin level. Any plucking or waxing must be stopped for several weeks before starting treatment, as the hair needs to be in the follicle for it to work.

    The effectiveness of the Laser Hair Removal treatments is mostly dependant on the quality of machine used, the parameters or correct setting and proper candidate selection. An ideal candidate for Laser Hair Removal has light coloured skin and dark coloured hair. This stark contrast of colour allows the laser light to easily target the hair and pose little or no risk of harm to the skin. This is also why it’s important to avoid sun exposure and tanning when undergoing a course of permanent hair removal treatments.

    It is important for the full area to be treated by the laser with each hair removal appointment so hairs are not missed. Any missed patches will require additional treatments in the future and the area may look patchy or have uneven hair growth. Hairs that do not fall out or shed within about 14 days have usually not been treated effectively. This is due to poor spacing by the operator or incorrect technique, which can often be avoided by finding a reputable laser clinic that has licensed and experienced operators.

    Looking to find out more about Laser Hair Removal Brisbane or Permanent Hair Removal Brisbane? Contact Image by Laser today to find out about our Laser Hair Removal Prices .

    In: 1(1,149) Comments

    Friday August 25th, 2017 20:44 Some Ideas for What To Do In NYC

    New York City is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world. There are many great places to visit and things to do in New York. In this article, there are some interesting ideas about what to do in NYC. People can do many things in this beautiful city. This is a great city to visit for a family holiday. Everyone loves New York City. This city is commonly known as “The City That Never Sleeps” because people can enjoy the beauty of this city 24/7 all year round. Here are some interesting activities to do in this city.

    1. Visit Statue Of Liberty
    This is the first attraction that people usually visit when they are in this city. This attraction is the most popular attraction in the world. Many tourists from different countries really want to visit this beautiful statue. This statue is the main symbol in the history of the United States. People need to ride a cruise in order to reach this beautiful statue in the Liberty Island. In this island, people are allowed to take as many pictures as the want.

    2. Enjoy the Central Park
    Central Park is located on the heart of New York City. Many tourists and local people do their activities in this beautiful park. People usually go skateboarding, have a picnic, or walk around this park just to watch the people. This is also considered as the icon of New York City. This park is open to public so people can enjoy doing their activities here. There are many beautiful ponds, trees, and attractions in this park. Almost all children love playing in Central Park. People should also try riding a horse around this park.

    3. Climb to Top Of The Rock, Rockefeller Plaza
    This is another great attraction located in this city. People are able to observe the beauty of New York City by climbing to the “Top of The Rock”, Rockefeller Plaza. They can enjoy 360 degree unobstructed views of this city. It is recommended to visit this place at night because there are many beautiful lights and buildings that people can see at night. People can take pictures as many as they want in this place. This is the best place to see many tall buildings, such as Empire State Building.

    4. Come to Times Square
    Times Square is considered as the most popular icon in New York City. Everyone enjoys coming to Times Square. This is located in the center of this city. There are many restaurants, movie theaters, broadway theaters, shops, hotels, and much more. This is the entertainment center in this city. People can enjoy visiting Times Square 24/7. During the holiday season, this place is packed with people. There are many people coming around the world. There are some local people who perform some beautiful attractions, such as singing, dancing, painting, etc, in this place.

    Those are some ideas about what to do in NYC. It is very important to plan everything before visiting this city. People should book their accommodation in advance, especially if they plan to visit NYC during the holiday. There are many people who want to visit this city. That is the reason why people should book everything, such as hotel reservation, airlines tickets, attraction admission tickets, and much more before visiting this city.

    In: 1(1,380) Comments

    Tuesday August 22nd, 2017 08:13 Cladding Mackay – Consider Vinyl Cladding Over Painting

    Over the past several decades, more and more people have become aware of the numerous benefits of modern vinyl cladding and started to use it instead of paint. Paint is a great choice if you plan on selling the house in the near future since it does not involve a major investment, but if you want to make your home more comfortable, then vinyl cladding is the best choice. The truth is that vinyl cladding does have a series of advantages that should be taken into account if you want to get the best quality for your money. Here you will find the most important benefits:

    What Is Vinyl Cladding?
    In order to fully understand its benefits, you must firstly know what vinyl cladding is. In a nutshell, this is a type of cladding made from PVC combined with several other substances that aim to increase durability. This material is fixed on the exterior of your home to improve its overall aspect and also for improving thermal performance. Paint, on the other hand, is used only for improving the aspect of your home and it does not improve the thermal performance of your house in any way.

    This type of cladding is also very durable in the long run, unlike paint which peels off and loses its intensity thoughout the years. This is possible with the help of the acrylic components found in vinyl cladding, which help it stand the test of time – and weather! It does not rot or crust, and it can last for decades even in the harshest weather conditions.

    One of the most important advantages of this type of cladding is that unlike paint, it is very easy to maintain in the long run, and it adds value to your home. Paint is difficult to maintain over the years as it can easily deteriorate, but fortunately this is not the case with this type of cladding: you can easily wash it with a sprayer and some mild detergent once in a while, and that is it! It is true that vinyl cladding does require an initial investment, but the quality and the comfort are certainly worth it. Besides, this will also lower your energy bills.

    Vinyl cladding is undoubtedly one of the most affordable and versatile cladding options: you can easily adapt it in order to match the overall style of your home, no matter if you own a traditional or a modern house. All you need in order to make your home stylish and unique is some high-quality products and a little bit of creativity. Besides, it is so affordable that you can even clad your entire home with it without having to spend a little fortune!

    Last but certainly not least, another great benefit of this type of cladding is that it comes with an important warranty that confirms the quality and the durability of the material. This warranty will give you the peace of mind you need: your investment is fully protected, should anything happen with the cladding.

    In conclusion, these are the main advantages of vinyl cladding over painting. Painting may be cheaper, but it is less durable in the long run, it does involve some maintenance costs, it can easily peel off and it does not improve the thermal performance. On the other hand, vinyl cladding is extremely durable, affordable, easy to maintain, it adds extra style to your home and it improves thermal performance as well. For cladding Mackay contact Prestige Exteriors today. Make sure you check out the before and after photo gallery.

    In: 1(1,115) Comments

    Sunday August 20th, 2017 08:02 Hay – New South Wales

    Located near the impressive Murrumbidgee River in idyllic South Western NSW, the Riverina Shire of Hay has grown from its modest origins in the Gold Rush era to a significant agricultural and transportation nexus and popular tourist attraction. Combining natural beauty, historical heritage and landmark Australian industry, the Hay Shire incorporates both the town of Hay as well as the nearby villages of Booligal, Maude and One Tree. The great saltbrush grasslands of Hay are home to some of Australia’s leading wool growing and sheep meat producing areas, as well as cattle properties and many agricultural outputs such as garlic and corn.

    Also around Hay are the Riverine Forest, Grey Box Woodlands and Native Grasslands, home to a substantial amount of famous Australian fauna, such as Kangaroos and Black Swans. The plains of Hay have provided ideal living conditions for human settlement going back to the Nari Nari Aboriginal community who inhabited the area. White settlement started with the founding of four squatter properties, growing into a community funded by commerce with the stockmen and riverboats who traversed Langs Crossing.

    Along with the founding of a hotel, post office and courthouse, Hay grew substantially with the famous Cobb and Co making it their base of operations for Victoria and the Riverina, including the largest stagecoach factory outside of Sydney. Growing tenfold in population, Hay was later depopulated due to almost every eligible adult male enlisting for service in World War I, of which 1/6 were killed. Hay’s population would later be increased after the thousands of war prisoners and refugees held in the area during World War II were released and later resettled in Hay. Still a rural agricultural town, Hay embraces and celebrates its heritage and natural beauty with a number of locations and establishments that cater to tourists and locals alike.

    For short term accommodation hay, accommodation hay or holiday home hay, make sure you investigate Murrumbidgee Cottages. Both of our cottages are situated just a short distance from the picturesque Murrumbidgee river and are perfect for families. If you are looking for a holiday home for a couple of days, short term accommodation or even something longer either would be a great fit.


    Related Blogs

      In: 1(1,136) Comments

      Monday August 7th, 2017 06:28 Impressionism

      Impressionism was a crucial artistic movement, originally in painting and later on in music, that developed chiefly in France during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Impressionist painting is defined as the work produced between about 1867 and 1886 by a particular types of artists who shared a set of related approaches and styles. The most obvious characteristic of Impressionism was an attempt to accurately and objectively record visual real images in terms of moving effects of light and colour. The principal Impressionist painters were Claude Monet, Pierre Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro, Alfred Sisley, Berthe Morisot, Armand Guillaumin, and Frédéric Bazille, who collaborated together, influenced each other, and exhibited together and alsoindependently. Edgar Degas and Paul Cézanne also worked in an Impressionist style for a time in the early 1870s. The established painter Édouard Manet, whose work in the 1860s influenced Monet and others of the group, himself tried the Impressionist style about 1873.

      These artists had become dissatisfied earlier in their careers with academic teaching’s emphasis on showing an historical or mythological subject matter with literary or anecdotal overtones. They also rejected the established imaginative or idealizing treatments of academic painting. By the late 1860s, Manet’s art reinforced a new aesthetic—which became a guiding style in Impressionist work—in which the importance of the traditional subject matter was downgraded and attention was moved to the artist’s manipulation of colour, tone, and texture as ends in themselves. In Manet’s painting the subject became a vehicle for the artistic composition of areas of flat colour, and perspectival depth was minimised so that the viewer would look at the surface abrasions and relationships of the picture rather than into the illusory three-dimensional space it created. About the same time, Monet was influenced by the innovative painters Eugene Boudin and J.R. Jongkind, who depicted fleeting effects of sea and sky by means of highly coloured and texturally varied modes of paint application. The Impressionists also adopted Boudin’s practice of working entirely out-of-doors while viewing the actual scene, instead of finishing up his painting from sketches in the studio, as was the normal practice.

      In the late 1860s Monet, Pisarro, Renoir, and others began painting landscapes and river scenes in which they tried to unemotively show colours and forms of objects as they appeared in natural light at a given time. These artists abandoned the traditional landscape palette of muted greens, browns and grays and instead painted with a lighter, sunnier, more brilliant key. They started out by painting the play of light on water and the reflected colours of its ripples, working to copy the innumerable and motion effects of sunlight and shadow and of direct and reflected light that they saw. In their efforts to reproduce immediate visible impressions as registered on the retina, they gave up on the use of grays and blacks in shadows as inaccurate and used complementary colours instead. More importantly, they learned to create objects out of discreet flecks and dabs of pure harmonising or contrasting colour, thereby evoking the broken-hued brilliance and the variations of hue resulting from sunlight and its reflections. Forms in the paintings lost their clear outlines and became softer, shimmering and vibrating in a re-creation of actual outdoor conditions. And finally, traditional formal compositions were abandoned in favour of a more casual and less contrived positioning of objects within the picture frame. The Impressionists extended their innovative techniques to depict landscapes, trees, houses, and even urban street scenes and interesting buildings such as railroad stations.

      In 1874 the group held its first show, independent of the official Salon of the French Academy, which had rejected most of their works. Monet’s painting “Impression: Sunrise” (1872; Musée Marmottan, Paris) earned them the initially condescending name “Impressionists” from the journalist Louis Leroy who wrote of them in the satirical magazine Le Charivari in 1874. The artists themselves quickly adopted the name as their intention to accurately show visual “impressions.” They held 7 subsequent exhibitions, the last in 1886. During that time they continued to develop their own personal and individual styles. All of them, however, affirmed in their work the principles of freedom of technique, a personal rather than a conventional approach to subject matter, and the truthful reproduction of nature.

      By the mid-1880s the Impressionist group had begun to break down as each painter increasingly pursued his own aesthetic interests and principles. In its short existence, however, it had begun a revolution in the making of art, providing a technical starting point for the post-impressionist artists Paul Cézanne, Edgar Degas, Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, and Georges Seurat and clearing all subsequent Western art from narrow techniques and approaches to subject matter.

      Looking for art canvas or acrylic paint for your impressionist masterpiece? For all you art supplies, including oil paints, contact Discount Art Warehouse today.


      Related Blogs

        In: 1(1,338) Comments

        Thursday August 3rd, 2017 05:55 Stone Cladding for both homes and commercial premises

        Stacked stone, which may also be referred to be some people as stone veneer or stone cladding, is a type of cladding that can be applied to both internal as well as external walls and is used to help decorate both residential as well as commercial properties. It does bring with it a number of advantages, but before discussing those it is perhaps best to first of all offer up a better description as to what this is and how you can actually have it installed.

        Stacked stone is something that is used to create a special effect on section of walls to make them stand out or quite often to surround a fireplace. It gives the impression of thin layers of stone being laid upon one another, much like a dry stone wall, so it is certainly something that is extremely tidy to look at. There are various types of stone that can be used as it does often depend upon what is in the locality, but once the job is done it can look pretty spectacular.

        When it comes to the benefits then there are several benefits linked to its aesthetic side whilst others are more about its practicality. It is, therefore, a good idea to begin with the aesthetics first although it has to be said that there are more practical benefits than aesthetic.

        By using this method it does give the area a rather classy and elegant feeling to it and this is often quoted as being one reason why so many official buildings will have areas where it is incorporated during its construction. For residential areas it can give often make a house stand out from the others and give it a sense of dignity and a certain panache as it is different to the normal bricks and mortar that you see everywhere else. The fact there are so many different types of stone, and therefore colors, does mean that no two walls will be identical even within the same house.

        The main benefits of stacked stone are; however, practical and one of the first is actually that it is very cost effective as a form of cladding compared to other methods that are also used. It is of course also better at weathering and will, therefore, last longer and due to the material there is also less chance of it being damaged in some way, which is important when it is used externally. This is of course due to the fact that it is extremely strong and when it comes to construction you should never underestimate the importance of strength. It can of course also cope with a corner being flaked off without it damaging the overall integrity of the cladding as this will not make it any weaker and the same cannot be said if glass or wood is damaged in any way.

        This strength theme is carried on as it is of course not going to be at risk of a termite infestation unlike wood so there will be less need to have things repaired or even entire walls rebuilt. It does, therefore, mean that it lowers the chances of any kind of bug infestation from the outside as they will find it harder to work their way through stone when compared to other materials that may be used.

        Finally, you will find that stacked stone is extremely easy to maintain and indeed cleaning it is a very simple task that can be carried out using normal cleaning materials and there is no need to get anything specifically aimed at the material in question. It will also not require you to clean it as often as other materials, therefore, saving you a lot of time and effort as well as money.

        So that is what is meant by the term stacked stone and there are also several of the benefits of having this kind of decoration in either your home or commercial premises. There are a wide range of options in regard to styles and colors of stones available so do just take some time looking at what is available from the company that is going to do the work and try to see which option you believe blends in best with its surroundings.

        Looking for stone cladding Townsville? How about stacked stone townsville? Contact Craftstone Oz today.

        In: 1(1,492) Comments

        Friday July 28th, 2017 05:13 Blood in Crime Scene Investigation

        At the scene of a violent crime, the examining officer is likely to discover blood and traces of other bodily fluids. These are able to tell a great deal about what happened, not only regarding details of how the crime was committed, but also about the people involved.

        Nearly everybody knows their blood type, whether it is A, B, AB, or 0, and Rhesus negative or positive. This division of blood into types was first made by Austrian physiologist Karl Landsteiner at the end of the 19th century. In his experiments, he took samples of blood and separated the red cells from the liquid, which is called the serum. He achieved this by spinning the blood at high speed in a centrifuge. Then he took the serum and added red cells from different people. They responded in two different ways: either the cells mixed with the serum, or they clumped together (clotted), which is called ‘agglutination’.

        Many attempts at blood transfusion had been made in the past, but this observation explained for the first time why many had failed. When the blood was not of exactly the same type as that in the body, it resulted in clotting, and the patient died. Tests of blood samples to discover whether agglutination will happen is now made prior to a transfusion being made.

        DIVIDING BLOOD INTO GROUPS
        Red blood cells carry substances called antigens. These help create antibodies that fight infection and disease. Landsteiner thought that his experiment showed the presence of two specific antigens, which he labeled A and B. The discovery of these antigens enabled him to divide human blood into 4 basic groups:

        Group A: antigen A present; antigen B absent
        Group B: antigen A absent; antigen B present
        Group AB: both antigens A and B present
        Group 0: both antigens absent

        The specific blood group of an individual depends on the genetic inheritance from both parents. Known as ABO typing, it has been used, for example, to identify the biological father in paternity cases. How common each group is can vary from one national population to another. In the United States, for example, the relative proportions of ABO groups are roughly 39 percent A, 13 percent B, 43 percent 0, and 5 percent AB.

        In 1927, Landsteiner discovered two other antigen types, labeling their occurrence as M, N, and MN. In 1940, working in the United States, he and A.S. Wiener discovered the Rhesus factor, named after the Rhesus monkeys they investigated. Since then, other researchers have introduced more than a dozen further group systems. Different proteins and enzymes associated with specific blood groups have also been identified.

        WHAT THIS MEANS FOR FORENSICS
        The ability to identify blood type is an excellent tool for revealing important evidence in a forensic investigation. If, for example, a victim’s ABO type is 0, and bloodstains of this type are found to be on clothing of a suspect whose type is A, there is a possibility that they have come from the victim.

        Making use of the many other blood typing systems now available, this probability is greatly increased. If blood of type 0 occurs in 43% of the population, the substance haptoglobin-2 in 36% of these, and the enzyme PGM-2 in 5%, then the probability of an individual having these three blood types together is 43 x 36 x 5 = 7,740 in 1,000,000. In other words, around 8 people in every thousand will have this specific type of blood. It’s still insufficient to obtain a conviction on this evidence alone, but it can help to reduce the number of suspects.

        In 1925, another important discovery was made. Around 80 percent of people are ‘secretors’. This means their saliva, urine, perspiration, and semen contain the same substances as their blood, and can be used for typing in a similar way. In 1940, two British researchers found it was possible to distinguish between female and male body cells, particularly the white blood cells and those of the lining of the mouth. Blood typing has now become so precise that recently one scientist showed that he could distinguish between the blood of his twin daughters, who were genetically identical, because one had had chicken pox and the other had not.

        SPLASHES OF BLOOD
        At the scene of a violent homicidal attack, blood may be present in great quantities. Not only will it be on the victim, but also on the weapon and the surroundings. Indoors, the floors, walls, and even the ceilings may be splashed. Careful observation of these bloodstains can provide valuable clues about what took place. Bloodstains and splashes are classified into six basic types.

        Round drops are seen on horizontal surfaces; depending on the height from which they fell, they can spray out into a starlike shape. Splashes of blood are shaped like an exclamation mark; they show that blood has flown through the air and hit a surface at an angle. While a victim is still alive, spurts of blood result from the pumping action of the heart. A major artery can spray the blood a great distance.

        Pools form around the body of the bleeding person. If there is more than one pool, he either crawled, or was dragged, from one spot to another before dying. Smears will also be found if this happens. Trails are left when a bloody body is moved. There will be drops if the body was carried, and smears if it was dragged.

        If you are looking for a Sydney Criminal Lawyer, contact Go to Court. Our Sydney Criminal Lawyer is here to help. BS14082011SCL


        Related Blogs

          In: 1(1,551) Comments